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Battle of Thirupurambiyam

The Battle of Thirupurambiyam was fought between the Pandyas and Pallavas (including its supporters). It is one of the most important battles which changed the course of South Indian history. This battle should have happened in 879 CE.
The Battle of Thirupurambiyam was fought between the Pandyas and Pallavas (including its supporters). It is one of the most important battles which changed the course of South Indian history. This battle should have happened between 879-885 CE.
The battle hapenned during the period of Raja Vijayalaya Chola. The battle was mainly between the confederacy of the Pallavas, (Western Ganga Dynasty, the Medieval Cholas, Pallava king Aparajit) and Pandya Raja Varaguna Pandiyan (Varagunavarman II) near modern day Kumbakonam.



Backgound :
At the time of  battle Cholas were just marginal rulers with much less power as the Pandyas and Pallavas rose the south and north of them. The Chola region was ruled by Vijayalaya Chola who was the main reason for the re-establishment of the Chola dynasty in the medieval period. Making use of the opportunity during a war between the Pallavas and Pandyas, Vijayalaya Chola rose out of obscurity and captured Tanjore from the Muthuraiyars. After Vijayalaya captured Tanjore, the Pandiya king Varagunavarma II become a close ally of Pallava Nandhivarma III. Nandhivarma wanted to remove the growing influence of Vijayalaya and he called upon Varagunavarma II for help. Once Vijayalaya Chola got old he crowned his son Aditya Chola I as the new king. It was during the period of Aditya Chola I the battle of Thirupurambiyam took place.
After the Pallava king Nandivarman III died in 869 AD, the differences arose between his eldest son Nripatunga and another son Aparajit. Both started to fight for power. Nripatunga was supported by Pandyans. Seizing the opportunity provided by conflict between bothers, the Pandya king Varaguna Pandya tried to force the Pallava king Aparajit into submission. While Ganga king Pritvipathi and Aditya Chola I allied with Aparajit. The final war took place at the place called Thirupurambiyum.



Battle :
The forces of the Pallava kingdom, Western Ganga kingdom and the Chola kingdom met the Pandyan army at Sri Purambiyam or Thiruppurambiyam in the Thanjavur district of present-day state of Tamil Nadu.
It was said that the Pallava army under Aparajit suffered a heavy loss in the first three days of the war. But Vijayalaya the old veteran king even at his old age, unable to walk reached the battlefield and fought with the Pandiyas. This inspired the Pallava allies and they started to fight with more courage and as a result the Pallava Allies won the battle. According to the Udyendiram plates of Prithvipati II, Prithvipati I was killed after a brave fight. A Pallipadai temple was built in the remembrance of Pritvipathi I in Thirupurambiyum.
The Pandyans lost the battle with Varaguna Pandya going into retirement.



After Battle:
Although Pallavas won the battle, the maximum benefit of victory went to the Chola king. Pallavas gave many regions around Tanjore from Mutharaiyars to Chola king as the token of appreciation, which led them to re-establish themselves as a powerful dynasty.
The battle is considered to be a turning point in the history of South India for it precipitated the fall of the Pallava and Pandya kingdoms and triggered the re-emergence of the Chola power in history.

The Pandyas were completely devastated as a result of the battle and never recovered from the loss for two centuries. The Pallavas, though victorious, were forced to give heavy concessions to their rising Chola feudatories, who declared their independence. The Pallava kingdom was eventually annexed by the Cholas during the reign of Vijayalaya's son Aditya Chola I.

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