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Thursday, 25 May 2017

The Battle of Vijayawada(Bezawada)


The Battle of Vijayawada(Bezawada) was fought between the Medieval Cholas and Western Chalukyas of kalyani in 1068.  The Cholan army was commanded by Virarajendra Chola and the Western Chalukya army was commanded by Vikramaditya VI (Vikkalan). The war took place at Visaiyavadai (modern Vijayawada) in Andhra Pradesh, India.


Backgound:

Series of battles were fought between the Cholas and Chalukyas during the reign of Someshvara I of Chalukyas of Kalyanai. The reign of Someshwara-I was known for continuous conflicts with the Cholas. So He replaced his capital from Manyakheta to Kalyani.
Rajadhiraja Chola I had a desire to suppress the Chalukyan rule in Northern Karnataka and southern part of Modern Maharashtra and annex them to Cholas emipire. This led to the fierce battle which was fought at Koppam (Battle of Koppam) in 1054. Someshwara-I was defeated in this battle.
To avenge the Battle of Koppam, In 1602 Someshvara I had sent two armies, one under his general Chamundaraya, the forces met with the Chola army commanded by Rajendra Chola II at Kudalasangama (Battle of  Kudalasangama). And another army  into Gangavadi (southern Mysore territory) under his sons prince Vikramaditya VI and Jayasimha. However, Rajendra Chola II and his son Rajamahendra defeated both armies. Chalukyan commander was killed and  Someshvara's sons Vikramaditya VI and Jayasimha were forced to flee. The battle ended again with the defeat of Chalukya’s and a total victory for the Chola’s. Once again Chalukyas faced the defeat and thus Someshvara I's effort to erase the defeat at Battle of  Koppam failed.


In 1063, after the Battle of  Kudalasangama Rajendra Chola II and his son Rajamahendra died. Their death led to the coronation of Virarajendra as the new Chola king. And Someshvara I was busy reinforcing himself, militarily and diplomatically. In the east he counted on the Nagavamsi ruler Dharavarsha and the Eastern Ganga dynasty King Vajrahasta II of Kalinga as his allies. In Bezwada (Vijayawada), he relied on the support of the Paramara dynasty prince Janannatha. In the west he stationed a large army under Vijayaditya VI. In 1066, Vikramaditya VI had invaded the Chola Empire penetrating as far as the capital Gangaikonda Cholapuram and threatening the city before being repulsed. The Chola Emperor Virarajendra Chola reacted by leading a huge force into the Western Chalukya kingdom. Then Someshvara I wrote the Chola king Virarajendra Chola assigning a site in a place called KudalaSangamama for the battle, ironically near the site of the previous battle in which the Chalukya forces were so utterly defeated. Receiving this message, Virarajendra immediately set out for the battle and camped near Kandai for the Chalukyan army to arrive. However, because of an incurable illness that afflicted him, Someshvara I and his army did not show up at the venue. After waiting for a month, Virarajendra devastated the surrounding countryside, erected a pillar of victory on the banks of the Tungabhadra River. Then Virarajendra proceeded to Vengi to re-establish their control on the Eastern Chalukyan Kingdom.

Battle :



From KudalaSangamama, the Chola army proceeded to Vengi to re-establish their control on the Eastern Chalukyan Kingdom. The army of Western Chalukya, sources say that Someshvara-I had sent his son Vikramaditya VI (Vikkalan) and a senior trusted General (Jananatha) to capture Vengi and install a dummy ruler subordinate to Someshvara-I. This Chalukyan army and Cholan army led by Virarajendra met at Bezwada (Vijayavada). The Western Chalukya army led by Jananatha and Vikramaditya VI fought a decisive battle with the Cholas but facing the prospect of imminent defeat, fled into the jungles of the north with the Chola army in hot pursuit. Virarajendra pursued the fleeing Western Chalukya forces beyond the Godavari River.  Virarajendra crushed the Western Chalukya army. Virarajendra then proceeded to conquer the entire Eastern Chalukya kingdom, defeated and re-captured Kalinga whose king had been in alliance with the Western Chalukyas. After conquering Kalinga and Sakkarakkottam, Virarajendra installed Vijayaditya VII, the Eastern Chalukya prince on the Vengi throne and made him his subordinte.
The Battle resulted in the recovery of Vengi by the Cholas.


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